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Well, thank you quite. I desire to give you all a break for a moment and also transform to Mr. Swartz. You've been extremely patient, the three of you. I appreciate that significantly. Generally, we would certainly have had 2 panels, however we didn't know just how the Senate would be running today, so in an initiative to make certain we survived all the treaties today, we did this as one panel.

Swartz, you mention in your statement and your declarations that the treaty with Bermuda likewise punctures bank privacy and also offers a mechanism for us obtaining the details we require. There have actually been some shared legal help treaties that include stipulations relevant straight to sharing financial institution records or other economic information.

Swartz. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. When it come to that certain concern, the board might be referring to the relatively brand-new provision that shows up, for example, in our E.U.-U.S. Mutual Legal Help Treaty, the recognition of bank records stipulation. That was a stipulation that was composed and also embraced in the context of the E.U.

Under that provision, it's feasible for the requesting party to look for information as to whether an account exists in the requested nation, or when it comes to the E.U., one of the requested member states. After that, the request, if there is an identification of an account, must be adhered to up with a common mutual legal aid treaty.

As well as when it come to Bermuda, our document of teamwork has actually been great. Our team believe that the document we have on the manufacturing of documents, consisting of bank documents, is such that we are confident that the provisions included in this shared lawful aid treaty, which do need cooperation on the production of documents, will suffice to make sure that we obtain the records we need for our economic examinations and other investigations.

Some other MLATs likewise allow for immediate, non-written kind requests to be made. Mr. Chairman, while it is true that the Shared Legal Assistance Treaty does require requests in written kind, it was the judgment of the mediators that it was sufficient that, in this instance, with regard to Bermuda, we would certainly be able to obtain quick responses to our requests and likewise provide such actions to Bermuda's requests, particularly because we have a practice already developed that will certainly proceed, we believe, under the treaty of being able to communicate those demands via email or through fax.

Senator Cardin. Mr. Johnson. Mr. Johnson.

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Bermuda withstood that because they intended to make sure that the demands were clear and in a much more official way. In the arrangements, it likewise came to be clear that they approved that such request could be made by fax or by email. So the actual problem they were worried about was not finding a fast means to make a request, but really just taking dental requests off the table.

We're confident that we've obtained the ways in area that we can make urgent requests of them in a means that will certainly be effective. Mr. Swartz. Mr. Chairman, if I may add, as a matter of fact, while it is an advantage to be able to make dental demands, in method, it's extremely uncommon that we do so.

Legislator Cardin. Mr. Johnson, do have any comments on the bank records concern? Mr. Johnson.

The difference between having the ability to do an oral request or having the ability to utilize among these various other very quick methods, we think, is not consequential. Senator Cardin. There have actually been some concerns raised concerning the competence of Bermuda legislation with respect to forfeitures of profits and also agencies of criminal offenses.

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Swartz. Mr. Chairman, we are. Naturally, the growth of loss regulation is a vital and dynamic matter. We've seen a variety of adjustments over the program of the years, including right here in the United States. But the Common Legal Assistance Treaty in Write-up 17 does obligate Bermuda to give aid to the United States in procedures associating with loss of earnings as well as instrumentalities of criminal activity, to the degree allowed by the legislation of Bermuda.

We have actually had 2 examples of effective ask for restriction as well as loss of properties. Both instances were a success as well as we had the ability to get the funds. As a basic issue, aid is readily available under the legislations of Bermuda, and I do assume that is essential to stress and anxiety, with regard to cold, seizing, as well as restraining possessions, consisting of for matters connecting to terrorism and also terrorism funding.

It needs to be kept in mind that forfeit aid is not limited to what is permitted under Bermuda's domestic legislation. With regard to a UNITED STATE order, Bermuda can not surrender a details instrumentality of nondrug offenses, because that power does not exist domestically. Yet once more, that's limited to agencies in nondrug infraction situations.

Senator Cardin. In the Bermuda agreement, there's a stipulation that is not strange to us, where Bermuda can reject participation in capital cases.

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Are we prevented as an outcome of that or is there a method in which we are able to work together under this treaty, also in those instances? Mr. Chairman, we think and also we hope we still would certainly be able to work together.

We have that experience with other countries that have placed similar analyses on the common lawful assistance responsibilities, and also we have actually been able to function out setups in a number of situations that enable us to acquire proof or go over whether the evidence is substantial enough to go ahead with some kind of additional actions being taken.

Mr. Johnson. Mr. Johnson. Yes, Senator, if I might simply include in that, among the factors this treaty took as long it did to work out and also conclude is due to the fact that it was necessary to us to make certain that there had not been a specific restriction on assistance in funding situations in the treaty itself.

Swartz associated to you. And that method we believe that assists preserve the principle that is necessary to us, that such collaboration ought to be readily available, irrespective of the kind of instance. And also we assume this has actually also birthed out with a few other countries, where even with similar problems about teamwork in capital situations, they have, as an example, been able to offer aid to the nonpenalty stage of a test or another celebration examination.

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Legislator Cardin. They do hold the right under this treaty to deny cooperation where the United States criminal justice system is looking for capital punishment? Mr. Johnson. Senator, they hold the right under the treaty to not provide support if contrast public policy or their important passions, and also they have actually told us that they analyze that to allow them, in execution situations, to work out that.

I just desired to make it clear that they would not be an offense of the treaty. We recognize their interpretation, that if there was a situation pending below that we needed their help, where, clearly, the district attorneys were seeking the death charge, Bermuda can determine not to cooperate under this treaty.

Swartz. If I could claim, Mr. Chairman, notably, the treaty would require, since this would be a rejection under Write-up 3 of the treaty, that initially there had to be assessments with the United States, before that rejection might move forward. As well as I believe that's a crucial aspect of the negotiation that Mr.

Rather than having a specific arrangement, this is one of a collection of problems under which assistance might be denied after assessment, and also, to name a few points, that there must be consideration as to whether aid can be provided, subject to such problems as the requested nation regards necessary. As well as our experience because respect has actually been that we usually can discover ideal assurances to enable evidence to be created, a minimum of for first evaluation of the significance of evidence in case in general.

And I think that would be practical for us to have that info in this board. Mr. Swartz. Thank you. foreign tax credit. We would certainly be pleased to supply that. Senator Cardin. Ms. Mc, Carthy, you have the easiest work below, since this arrangement was previously approved by this board. As I claimed in my opening, we approved it far too late in the 111th Congress for activity.

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Have there been any type of substantial modifications in our investment relationship with Rwanda considering that last November when you gave testimony on this treaty? What we have actually seen considering that last November is a rise in United States investment in Rwanda, and also I can give you a few instances.

In February of this year, we have Hilton Hotels; it's is going to open up a major hotel in Kigali. And also, also, Marriott Hotels is going in to facilitate the country's growing hospitality sector. I would claim that, given this pattern of raised investment, that it is crucial that the securities be afforded for them.

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financiers. Senator Cardin. I thank you for that (foreign tax credit). You also discussed the reality that the United States is discovering other bilateral investment treaties in Africa. I think you discussed one other nation. I assume we have five present bilateral financial investment treaties in Africa. Can you just show to us other countries that the United States has shown passion in discussing treaties? Ms.

Senator Cardin. Thanks. I've been informed by the personnel that I ought to ask the concern of whether the management still sustains the Us senate adoption of the Rwanda treaty, because it was held over from the last Congress. So, for the record? Ms. Mc, Carthy. We absolutely do. Senator Cardin.

I assume that completes the examining. We might have some extra concerns for the document. As you know, the document stays open for 24 hours, so you get a break. That's a quite rapid turn-around time for this board. Yet I do appreciate your persistence with the committee and also thanks significantly for your testament today.

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As established out listed below, we would like to offer updated info on reported UNITED STATE investment activity in Rwanda. In 2009, the stock of UNITED STATE foreign direct investment in Rwanda was $1 million (according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis).

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And also I think that would certainly be helpful for us to have that information in this board. Mr. Swartz. Thanks. We 'd rejoice to provide that. Legislator Cardin. Ms. Mc, Carthy, you have the easiest work here, considering that this arrangement was previously authorized by this committee. As I claimed in my opening, we accepted it far too late in the 111th Congress for activity.

Have there been any kind of significant modifications in our financial investment connection with Rwanda considering that last November when you provided testament on this treaty? Ms. Mc, Carthy. Thanks, Mr. Chairman. What we have seen considering that last November is a boost in United States investment in Rwanda, and also I can offer you a couple of instances.

Likewise, in February of this year, we have Hilton Hotels; it's is mosting likely to open up a significant resort in Kigali. And, likewise, Marriott Hotels is entering to assist in the nation's growing friendliness sector. So I would claim that, provided this pattern of boosted investment, that it is necessary that the defenses be afforded for them.

You also pointed out the fact that the United States is checking out other bilateral financial investment treaties in Africa. I believe we have 5 current reciprocal investment treaties in Africa. Can you just share with us various other nations that the United States has revealed passion in working out treaties?

I think that finishes the questioning. I do appreciate your patience with the committee and also thank you very a lot for your testimony today.

Answer. As set out listed below, we want to provide upgraded details on reported UNITED STATE investment activity in Rwanda. Apart from these updates, the responses supplied by the Division's witness in the 111th Congress remain exact. In 2009, the supply of U.S. foreign straight investment in Rwanda was $1 million (according to the Bureau of Economic Evaluation).